The old Hospital of the Five Wounds or the Blood is located outside the city walls, in the far north, in front of the door and walls of the Macarena. It is part of a large block flanked by the streets Don Fabrique, San Juan de Ribera and Parliament Street in front, the latter formerly called Andueza.
The Hospital of the Five Wounds or of the Blood was founded by Mrs. Catalina de Ribera. His first establishment were some own houses located in the street Santiago, obtaining for it, of the Pope Alexander I SAW, Bula dated May 13 of 1500. It will be the first Marquis of Tarifa, who gives the definitive impulse to the hospitable foundation. After his death, which occurred in 1539, he ordered that a new hospital be performed with greater excellence. Specifically, it was in the then district of La Macarena that construction began on what was to be one of the most significant buildings of Spanish architecture of the 16th century. The Hospital was dedicated to the healing of women, calling itself the Five Wounds.
To choose the trace to be followed in the new building, the patrons sent the architect of the Church and Bishopric of Cádiz, Francisco Rodríguez Cumplido, to Toledo, Santiago and Lisbon, in order to study and copy the plants of their hospitals. At the same time that the master presented his designs, the architects Luis de Villafranca, Luis de Vega and Martín de Gaínza did it. Not sufficiently satisfied with the projects presented, they also called other illustrious teachers such as Pedro Machuca, Hernán Ruiz el Young and Gaspar de Vega, as well as Diego Hernández, Benito de Mora and Juan Sánchez from Seville.
It was definitely Gaínza who won the contest. The ditches began to be opened on March 25, 1546, and the first stone was laid on May 12. Under the direction of Martín de Gainza, author of the project, the south and west facades were executed, the latter up to the height of the cornices, with some of the naves and courtyards located behind them, the southwest tower and the start of the northwest tower. These labors were carried out between 1545 and 1556.
On June 17, 1558, Hernán Ruiz el Young was appointed master, who will remain in charge of the works until 1569. He is then in charge of completing the west wing of the hospital, especially in regard to roofs, as well as the culmination of the northwest tower. But, without a doubt, his most significant work will be the layout and execution of the church, designed in 1558, owing to him his exempt disposition.
Between 1569 and 1584, was the brother of Hernán Ruiz, Francisco Sánchez, the director of the work, attributing the northernmost sectors of the building.
In 1590, several architects were required to discuss the most convenient way to cover the church, an issue that was resolved by undertaking their work, although the vaulted system was adopted to the detriment of the originally designed coffered ceiling. Between 1615 and 1617, the construction of the main cover of the building was undertaken, with the traces given by Miguel de Zumárraga, as well as the attic rooms and dependencies of the main façade.
Already in the nineteenth century, specifically in 1808, the hospital was occupied by the military. In 1837, after the centralization of hospitals, it served as a warehouse for works of art that was bringing together the Municipal Charity Board, created by R.O. of October 13, 1836.
From March of 1972, the property happened to depend on the Diputación Provincial de Sevilla, starting in October 1982, the file of free transfer to the Junta de Andalucía. Currently, the part of the rehabilitated building is the seat of the Parliament of Andalusia.
Style: The Hospital of the Five Wounds responds originally to the Renaissance style. In plant, follows the disposition of the hospitable centers of the moment, although it maintains a close relation and dependence with respect to the Greater Hospital of Milan. But perhaps it is the church, considered one of the masterpieces of Spanish mannerism, the structure that offers the greatest innovation in the building. Its particularity resides in locating it the exempt architect of the rest of the building.
We are facing one of the largest hospitals built in the sixteenth century in Europe. It is a building that follows the characteristics of the Renaissance tends to horizontality forming, originally, a square with perfect symmetry and internal subdivisions around courtyards, leaving the church in the central courtyard.
The original project of the hospital proposed the construction of four facades and their respective towers in the angles. However, the building could not be completed and only the west and midday facades were finished, and the Northwest and Southwestern towers were finished. Recently, the southeast tower and part of the east façade have been completed, in addition to the two marble fountains that were previously located in the inner courtyards.
The building has two floors in height, the facades articulated by pilasters and columns. On the ground floor, on a plinth run, stand Tuscan pilasters boxed, between which open small windows topped by triangular pediments. In the upper body appear Ionic columns, very interesting arising balconies flanked by balusters of Ionic order, topped in triangular pediments crowned with acróteras. These balconies can be considered as windows since the level of the ground in the interior, is lower, and does not correspond to the one of the outside. The different modules culminate in gargoyles and on the main front two dormers with vaulted lintels with lugs open, flanked by pilasters finished in corbels and a curved pediment that contains another straight inside, being both broken by a kind of corbels.
On the outside, the building has a single doorway that opens onto the south façade that overlooks the old Andueza street, now the Parliament. Constructed in white marble, it offers two bodies in height. The first is structured around a lintel vain, flanked by Tuscan columns paired with grooved shaft, which rest on pedestals. Among those figures a niche and on the lintel a gravestone with the one inscription in Latin, which translated says "Doña Catalina de Ribera, and Don Fadrique Henríquez de Ribera, Marques de Tarifa, Adelantado of Andalusia, with no less taste than mercy commanded to do this vast hospital for the care of the poor, entitled of the Five Wounds of Jesus Christ, and the Most Reverend Trustees and Administrators of his hacienda, for a more perfect memory of such great Princes, made this door in the year 1617. " On a cornice flown, the second body rises, which presents a balustrade balcony with vain lintel between Ionic columns, flanked by pilasters finished in corbels and two lateral shields. It serves as auction a pediment, in whose center it presents / displays volutes and the coat of arms of the house of the founders between angels tenantes. The cover ends in a locksmith cross.
As for the towers, the one of the Southwest angle offers three bodies in height. The first two are similar to the rest of the façade, the latter presenting a half-point geminated vain, in which ornamental motifs of Serlian filiation can be seen, flanked by balusters and topped by a pyramidal spire with polychrome wall tiles recently renewed. In the Northwest tower, the compartmentation is the same with square and rectangular registers on both sides of the balcony. Here the spire still presents the original polychrome tiles. In both towers appears a balustrade in high relief, which seems to show that the hospital originally had this element on their facades. In the restoration carried out in 1991, this balustrade was incorporated again.
The hospital was conceived as a large rectangle with four square towers at the corners, distinguishing two essential parts: the facade bay with its annexed courtyards and the patient rooms that, when crossed, determined the presence of six courtyards, in one of the which, in connection with the open courtyard behind the access gallery, included the church. At present, the patient rooms remain, rectangular and very elongated, and the following patios. Attached to the façade bay are two courtyards in the west wing, one with a rectangular floor plan and three galleries (patio A) and a second one with a square floor plan (patio B). In the East wing there are two other patios, one square with a fountain in the center (patio C) and another with a rectangular layout and only three galleries (patio D). These open spaces have as support elements, Portuguese marble columns that support galleries of semicircular arches, on the ground floor, and recessed on the top floor. The arches are framed by alfices. The roofs are simple brick beams per board.
After the access gallery to the hospital, a porticoed space is opened that, when the church is incorporated, adopts an irregular plan in which two rectangles are juxtaposed (patio E). In it, the galleries are of semicircular arches on paired Tuscan columns that support corbels with figurative elements at their angles. The arches are framed by alfices. This same type of support is repeated on the upper floor, as access to the main rooms of the building, with the arches being reduced. The roofs of these galleries are of beams with brick by board. As access to the second floor, is located on the west side of this patio, the staircase, which is covered with an ochaved wood alfarje.
To the left and right of the church, there are two patios (courtyards F and G) with square layout, although the second only has two galleries. The western patio is accessed through a brick doorway, with reduced space, on which appears a crucifix and the shields of the founders of the building.
In the Northwest corner of the building there is another square patio (patio H) and after the church, once crossed the space of the library's dependencies, the last rectangular courtyard is located (patio I). These patios have brick pillars as supports, over which they flip semicircular arches, both upstairs and downstairs. Its roofs, like the rest of the courtyards, are simple brick beams per board.
Around the different patios of the building the different dependencies are distributed. Those corresponding to the façade bays, both on the upper and lower floors, have square and rectangular floors, having been enabled for administrative offices and headquarters of the different political parties, lacking these spaces of artistic interest. Regarding the wards, they retain their original layout, in the form of large elongated and rectangular naves, with brick beams per board, which at the intersections determine two square spaces. Currently, it is used as a library and together with it are located the administrative offices of the library service that offers as covering barrel vault with lunettes.
At the crossroads of the old sick rooms there are two interesting vaults, the oriental one with flat plasterwork of geometrical type or cut-out cardboard, and the western one on escarzen arches, of masonry and concentric circles. On these ships are located three cattails. Calderón Quijano analyzes the one located in the oriental nave, which he names as Clinica de la Esperanza, which has a semicircular arch that ends in a wavy pediment, in whose center a circle appears, culminating in a weather vane and wrought iron cross. It conserves four mechinales that induce to think about the possible existence of a lattice. Similar to this bulrush is the one of the western ship, although it does not finish in cross and vane. There is another one that gives courtyard F, which the aforementioned author calls the Court of the Cardinal. It is of a single body and offers a triple arcade of half-point spans. Above it, a corrugated curved pediment, broken in the center, from where a pinion with the date in a circle of "1912" emerges, probably that of one of its restorations.
As already indicated, in the courtyard located behind the access gallery to the hospital, the church is located, which breaks with the hospital constructive tradition, when being disposed of the rest of the building. Its plant is of Latin cross, with a single ship of two sections and small rectangular side chapels. The transept has undeveloped arms, the main chapel being semicircular. The sacristy located behind the main altar has a rectangular floor plan. Between the church and the sacristy, a spiral staircase is located that serves as access to the roof of the building and communicates with the crypt. Regarding the supports of the temple, apart from its own walls, it is important to point out the capitals-hangers, on which stand strong Ionic columns attached to support the arches fajons and formers that hold the various vaults. As for the interior covers, it has vaults in the nave and transept, and vault of furnace or quarter of sphere in the presbytery. The sacristy, on the other hand, offers vaults of edge, with casetones and geometric reasons.
The church has three covers: the main and two lateral, on the side of the Gospel and the Epistle, respectively. The main portal, located at the foot of the church, is designed as a triumphal arch, with two bodies and a triangular pediment as a finishing touch. The lower body is Doric, presenting a semicircular arch with a corbel in the key, flanked by double Doric columns that rise above the podium and support an entablature with triglyphs. In the spandrels and key of the arch, three reliefs are placed with the representation of the theological virtues: Faith, Hope and Charity, made in 1564 by Juan Bautista Vázquez el Old. The second body, offers niches between paired Ionic columns, flanking a semicircular arch with a corbel in the key, on which are placed the shields of the patrons and the inscription alluding to St. Thomas and the title of the Hospital: "QVIA VIDISTI ME THOMA / CREDIDISTI BEATI QVI NON / VIDERUNT ET CREDIDERVNT ". In the spandrels the inscription "YEAR 1567" can be read. A domed entablature of serliana filiation gives way to a triangular pediment that culminates in vault-shaped acroteras. It stands out in the cover, the careful design, as well as the geometric ornamentation of the intercolumns and jambs.
The side covers, open on the cruise, offer a similar scheme to the main one although its design is simpler. They present arches of half point with corbel in the key, flanked by Ionic columns on pedestals, with central niche between oval registers. On the entrance arch they present a decorative frieze with vases on the columns and a hornacina avenerada as a finishing touch.
As for the facades of the hospital temple, it must be said that the façade of the feet has on both sides of the portal, two protruding modules articulated by Doric, Ionic and Corinthian pilasters, between which several windows and oculi are opened, offering the last body ashlar pillows, and on the cover a window of illumination to the church. The lateral facades offer the same articulation, ending in Palladian thermal windows. The façade of the headboard ends in a stone belfry, with a half-point arch, pilasters attached to the jambs and a straight pediment as a finishing touch. Inside there is a bell with the inscription, not completely legible: "SOLANO ME FECIT. YEAR 1714". Top the facade of the church in kind of pyramids topped with balls.
Regarding the exterior decks, all are gable roof tiles, except for the church that is terrace.
The building has a rectangular atrium, which is developed in front of the main façade, on its perimeter and delimited by iron bars and pillars, in which two marble fountains are located between landscaped areas.
Fuente: bdi del Patrimonio Inmueble de Andalucía (Junta de Andalucía)