The Ibero-American Exposition of 1929 is the most important urban transformation of the city in contemporary times until 1992. The site is developed in a landscaped environment in which unique architectures are placed that monumentalize it: supported on the course of the river and in existing buildings of the importance of the tobacco factory or the San Telmo Palace, gives shape to the desire for growth towards the south that the city had already manifested in projects such as the drawing of the Salon de Cristina or The Delights Garden de Arjona.
The fundamental scenario is that of the segregated sector of the gardens of the Montpensier Palace and that constituted the Maria Luisa Park in honour of the cession by the infant Maria Luisa de Orleáns, prolonged in the Garden of the Delights and along the Avenue Reina Victoria (now Delight Paseo and of the Palmera) to the South Sector. Other scattered buildings were located in the gardens of Saint Telmo or, in the singular case of the Grand Hotel "Hotel Alfonso the 13th” in the Garden of Eslava.
The initial layout arises as a result of the contest of blueprints held in 1911 and from which the proposed unitary layout submitted by architect Aníbal González was chosen and which, in those that followed (1913, 1924, 1925 and 1928), was disfigured for the sake of dispersed implementation with the intervention of a larger number of professionals. The architect resigned dying shortly before the inauguration of the event.
In the original project of the Spain Square in 1914, a square was proposed to close the Exhibition to the east, creating a large, open, representative space, over the María Luisa Park; plaza that included a pond. The construction basically follows this project, although it was the object of numerous controversies, especially with the Academy of Fine Arts following the lateral towers. Indeed, it is a large space formed by two quarters of circle linked by a central building that deforms the plant to look like a semi-oval. Two buildings with a pavilion structure adapt their geometry to the circular curvature, finding at their ends the towers, north and south, which at the time altered the profile of the city of Seville, only crowned by the Giralda minaret. In the centre they find the largest building, the only one that emphasizes its volumetry in the rear façade and that, in the front, builds the only body of three floors highlighting its overlapping arcades. Parallel to the buildings, the pond crosses the square, closing the open side with a rectilinear arm, being crossed in total by eight bridges. To the outside a walk of 35 meters wide that is separated from the pavilions by a wall covered with tiles, topped by a balustrade. Small rooms are attached to this wall, with benches and ceramic shelves, dedicated to each of the provinces of Spain, showing in tiles the map of the province as well as some scenes from its local history.
The pavilion forms its interior façade by means of an elevated lodge formed by a half-point arcade and double columns of support. This lodge, besides giving access to the buildings, allows a perimeter route that complements the central one of the central esplanade and that repeats the walk through the open rooms of the provinces abroad. For the rest, it is treated as a whole of an exercise in the interpretation of Spanish classicism, executed mainly in brick and which is covered with two waters with Arabic tile or with a flag roof in the representative body. The attention to detail is shown in the coffered ceilings, tiles, balusters and how many details are its arches, capitals and cornices.
Its scale and outstanding presence in the attractive surroundings of the Park, has made the Spain Square the main and indisputable reference of the Sevillian regionalism
Aníbal González did not finish the work when presenting his resignation, being Pedro Sánchez Núñez who took charge of the works from September of 1926, when really the practical totality of the building was defined. The most visible contribution to the whole of the Spain Square comes from Vicente Traver, who in 1927 projected the fountain that occupies the centre of the esplanade.
Fuente: bdi del Patrimonio Inmueble de Andalucía (Junta de Andalucía)