It is located at the confluence of the streets Dos de Mayo, Arfe and Almirantazgo, where the Wicket Door of the Oil opens on the wall that surrounded Seville, allowing the communication of the city with the Royal Atarazanas, with the Guadalquivir River and with the wastelands of land that was located in the so-called Arenal. This door owes its name to the proximity in which the oil stores were located, in the vicinity of the port.
This gate has been identified with the bab al-Qatai that the Muslim sources cite in relation to the construction of the Almohad shipyards in 1184.
As for its origin, there is unanimity among the Sevillian historians when it comes to linking it to the presence in its vicinity of the market and the oil stores, whose existence we have documented at least since 1413.
The popular name of Wicket Door of the Oil is not documented as a place name in Muslim sources, nor in the Castilian documents of the thirteenth century, which is called "Azeytuna door", appearing registered for the first time in 1345 and generalized in the 15th century.
Sevillian historiography has named this door with two other names, such as the Atarazanas and Azacanes, which have also been applied to the Coal shutter.
The doors of the Sevillian wall were transformed in the sixteenth century, under the extraordinary boom experienced by Seville due to its trade with America. The aim of the reforms was to provide the doors with greater functionality, facilitating traffic through them, converting them into specific elements of urban planning, opening streets targeted by them, and endowing them with a new symbolic meaning, eliminating the vestiges of Islamic domination. and covering them with a new classical language, which would include the placement of shields and inscriptions.
The reform of the doors became a true urban operation within the city, in which we must highlight the performances of the assistants Francisco Chacón, in the 1560s and Francisco de Zapata, Conde de Barajas, in the 1570 .
Under the initiative of the Count of Barajas worked Benvenuto Tortello, Master Mayor of the city, who owes the reform of Wicket Door of the Oil. We know, thanks to an autograph memorial of him, dated in 1569, that this architect projected the reform whose works would conclude four years later. It consisted in the union of the two towers in a single body, while they rubbed the lower part of them in order to facilitate the transit. It was also proceeded to the placement of a tombstone with inscription in Castilian commemorative of the reforms in which it appears the date of conclusion of the same ones, 1573, and a shield with the arms of the City that still today are conserved in the Eastern facade of the door.
Much of the wall was destroyed in the nineteenth century due to the expansion of the city. At present, only the Macarena Gate, the Wicket Door of the Oil and fragments of the Royal Doorand the Door of the Córdoba, as well as remains of the Wicket Door of the Carbon, are preserved.
It responds to one of the three different provisions that had the primitive doors of the Islamic fence before being reformed in the sixteenth century. It was a door flanked by two towers, with direct access and protected by a barbican. Excavations carried out in it, documented that the access to the barbican was unfurled with respect to the door, so that it had to make a right-angle break to access it, something very typical in this type of door.
The accesses of the Sevillian wall were divided into doors and shutters, the shutters being defined as the non-main doors of the city. This place is also popularly known as " Wicket Door of the Oil arch".
The wall was topped by a double crenellated line, one on each side of the walkway. At the height of each of the towers, which up to this level were massive, have in the upper body with a vaulted camera, which are currently used as homes.
On the outside, the two towers are plastered and whitewashed, and they keep a brick wall at different heights in each one of them. Through the facade of the Admiralty street we can see a beautiful shield in relief with the inscription that dates its reconstruction in 1573. At the foot of this facade there is a small chapel of the eighteenth century dedicated to the Immaculate.
From the part of the city the access is presented as a great vault escarzan, of great width, being located on the right side the chapel of the Immaculate Conception. Above the vain can be seen a flat surface in which there is a large gravestone dated in 1573, which attests to the date of its last construction, on which is presented in a tond the shield of the city with San Fernando , Saint Isidoro and San Leandro, finishing the set by a kind of triangular pediment with angel's head in the tympanum and vases with flowers of auction. The set is finished on both sides with hood caps.
In the interior of the door, you can see the cupboard of the great door that must have closed it, in addition to the slots in its sides where large planks were placed to prevent the waters caused by the great avenues of the river from entering the city.
On the Arenal side, the Wicket Door is attached to its left side with the real Atarazanas. This facade is very modified due to the interventions to which it was subjected at the end of the 16th century. It has a large bay window supported by a pilaster, flanked by a pilaster on the right side, as the left side is embedded in the Atarazanas. On it an entablature is crowned three half pillars finished in balls joined by two concave parapets.
The door is whitewashed in white on the side of the city, presenting colour albero in the interior of the great vain escarzan that extends to the facade of the Arenal, which only appears in white the entablature of the door. On the side of the Atarazanas there is a ceramic altarpiece dedicated to the Mercy of the Brotherhood of Baratillo.
Fuente: bdi del Patrimonio Inmueble de Andalucía (Junta de Andalucía)