The creation of the Park of the Delights of Arjona, also known as the Gardens of the Delights of Arjona, responds to one of the first landscaping attempts that remodelled and enlarged the plan of the city since the 18th century. The phase of greatest importance with respect to the configuration of the physiognomy that it presents today is due to the intervention in the area that Assistant Arjona sought in 1825. Thanks to this intervention, the main traces of the romantic garden were created, such as today. We know, equipping the enclosure with irrigation devices that were qualified at the time of very novel and of great technological interest by incorporating a steam engine for pumping water. Another period to highlight in the creation of these gardens was the incorporation of movable property from the Archbishop's Palace of Umbrete that, dismantled after the fire that destroyed this building in 1762, were first used to decorate the Museum Square in Seville.
In 1864 its incorporation into this garden implies the presence of Italian Rococo art, of classicist and pagan thematic tradition. The sculptures were placed on pedestals made by Cayetano de Acosta, also of Rococo style. As a definitive phase in the spatial planning of the gardens, it is necessary to highlight the moment in which the total of its plant was incorporated into the premises of the Ibero-American Exposition of 1929. This entailed a considerable remodelling in the spatial arrangement of some of its parts and an important alteration other. The link with this event was also the reason why there is a patrimonial increase in the enclosure, in which properties belonging to the framework of regionalism and the historicism of colonial tradition were built, achieving characteristics of stylistic and historical unity in its architecture that homogenizes the sector on both sides of Avenue de la Palmera.
The Gardens of the Delights of Arjona have a close environmental and landscape relationship with their own environment since the opening of the Maria Luisa Infanta Park as a public space, both for its proximity and for the similarity of botanical species that they conserve. In these gardens there are important examples of American species since, in its origin, it served as a sample and enclosure for its cultivation.
The Park of the Delights of Arjona, denomination that alternates with the one of Gardens of the Delights of Arjona, is located to the south of the city, in the angle formed by the drawing of the Avenue of the Queen Victoria, well-known popularly like Avenue of La Palmera, along the Avenue de Santiago Montoto, parallel to the Guadalquivir river bed, and along Avenue de Moliní, which amputated part of its plant to communicate the aforementioned Queen Victoria Avenue with the recently dismantled Alfonso 13th Bridge.
At present, and without the immediate surroundings having undergone extraordinary changes, the Gardens of the Delights of Arjona represent an area of transition between the great vegetation of María Luisa Park and the riverbank, next to which they are located the docks. On the other hand, this garden area is located at the edge of the main access to the city from the south, ennobling the entry of greater historical trajectory with its remarkable botanical species and its repertoire of sculptures and decorative fountains.
From east to west, the Gardens of the Delights are arranged with the following sequence: a strip extended parallel to Avenue de la Palmera, where the most romantic plot is found, an effect achieved by arranging the circuits around to circular roundabouts communicated by paths of straight or curved route. In them are preserved fountains or pedestals with sculptures that give the whole a sought after scenic character. The first of them, dedicated to Venus, presents a central sculpture on a high pedestal; the second, to Urania, is also composed of a central sculpture on a pedestal; and in the third, there is a central fountain with a sculpture of a child playing with a conch shell. After the promenade of Lebanon there are three more roundabouts on the flank near Avenue de la Palmera, while on the contrary only two appear. Of these, one is dedicated to the painter Sorolla and another to the god Pan. Of the second, the first is a square plan, in which there is a step decorated with pedestals and sculptures in the corners, joining another circular one.
Finally we find an organized space around a central pond with a rectangular floor plan. The area located in the back sector described, extended to the west boundary of the garden, has extensive grass meadows in which there are three roundabouts and a very clear arrangement composed of dirt trails. This area belonged to the space in which the old flowerpot was located, reason why it presents a very differentiated arrangement to the rest of the garden, being the most recent in the process of incorporation in the remodelling of all the landscaped areas that compose it and no ordering of a symmetric nature has been proposed.
As areas reformed by the implantation of some of the pavilions of the Ibero-American Exposition of 1929, the southern and northern ends of the garden itself have yet to be described. In the first, those from Morocco and Colombia were located, conserving, around them, the character of a landscaped area in which scattered and exempt constructions were raised. In the opposite sector, the main alteration of the garden was carried out as a consequence of the construction of the Argentine pavilion. This building, with a great development in the plant, altered the space around it, mainly in the part before the main façade, before which an access for traffic is designed as a halt from the Avenue de La Palmera, similar to the one proposed on the sidewalk border, coinciding with one of the entrances of María Luisa Park. Closer to the vertex of the garden at the northern end is the pavilion of Guatemala, and then a small gazebo.
Currently, and covering the entire plant of what is considered a historical garden, the Gardens of the Delights of Arjona, in Seville, represent for the sector of the city in which it is located, an important landscaped area that counts with interesting botanical species and other elements of original urban furniture at the time of its design. Although separated from the extensive Maria Luisa Park by the Avenue de la Palmera, it connects with this sector of great density of green areas of patrimonial interest of the city, with which and in spite of the different reasons that created them, a union was exercised in the one that the implantation of some of the pavilions of the Ibero-American Exhibition of 1929 granted a certain unitary character.
Fuente: bdi del Patrimonio Inmueble de Andalucía (Junta de Andalucía).